Sustainable Urban Agriculture: Vineyards in the Heart of Paris

Montmartre harvest festival, called Vendanges de Montmartre, and the remaining urban vineyards in the heart of Paris

History of Parisian Vineyards

Unlike American vineyards, which are most often tucked away among rolling hills outside of populated areas, France has embraced the culture of the vineyard, and keeps it close to their heart. Agriculture has long been an important part of European culture, and urban vineyards are no exception. One key difference between France and America is that France chooses to preserve their rich culture and history of agriculture, while America attempts to add urban agriculture into the mainstream. Even in populous areas such as Paris, France is continuing a generations old tradition of preserving agricultural heritage.

Paris has a long, rich history in winemaking. From as far back as the thirteenth century, Paris has produced a wide variety of grapes from various areas in the greater Paris area. Urban vineyards comprised much of the city area of Paris until the eighteenth century when urbanization began to soar. A few of the most well-known urban vineyards include:

Parc Georges-Brassens: In 1983, Parc Georges-Brassens became a 700 vine vineyard located east of the Eiffel Tower3. Parc Georges-Brassens has an area of 1,300 square feet and can produce as much as 1,300 pounds of grapes each year.

Parc de Belleville: In Eastern Paris, the Parc de Belleville vineyard was reestablished on the grounds once worked by monks in the thirteenth century.

Vigne du Parc de Bercy: Rich in history and speculation as to its long history, the Vigne du Parc de Bercy is located along the Seine River. The history of this vineyard goes back as far as two millennia, and it remains a strong presence as an urban vineyard with more than 350 vines.

History of the Montmartre Harvest Festival

Montmartre is a neighborhood in Paris comprised of cobblestone streets, vine covered buildings, and colorful awnings and shutters. Nestled within this neighborhood is Vigne du Clos Montmartre, the oldest vineyard in Paris still in operation. An important piece of Parisian culture, the vineyard has remained a source of inspiration and celebration.

The Vendanges de Montmartre (Montmartre harvest festival) is an annual event celebrating the history of Parisian wines and the sanctity of the last remaining vineyards in Paris. With wine having long been an icon of French cuisine and the romance that surrounds Paris, it is no surprise that there are still 132 vineyards in the greater Paris area. Even so, there are only 10  inside the city limits, which makes Montmartre even more of a cultural icon to be celebrated.

In order to understand the significance of the Montmartre harvest festival, it is important to understand the journey Clos Montmartre has traversed. The town of Montmartre once thrived on wine production, even hosting a temple in reverence to Bacchus, the Roman god of wine. Wine production dwindled during the period between the twelfth and twentieth centuries, and a bout of phylloxera in the early twentieth century nearly destroyed every crop. Phylloxera is an infestation of plant lice that destroys the leaves and roots. Said to originate in the United States with an introduction into Europe around 1863, phylloxera is devastating to grapevines.

Rich architecture and a classic, storybook village surround the site of the vineyard at Montmartre. The site was nearly lost to development in the early twentieth century until 1933, when the site was saved and the Mairie de Paris conserved the vineyards. Under French law, vineyards are protected from being built upon, which was the saving grace for Montmartre.

The Festival

Since 1934, the Montmartre harvest festival has kept history and agriculture alive in Paris. Usually the second week in October, the festival provides a wonderful, creative backdrop for residents and tourists to sample Parisian culture and dedication to the city’s agricultural roots. Festivalgoers may enjoy a parade, music, folklore, tours of vineyards, auctions, and wine tasting.

One important part of the festival is that children are welcome and encouraged to participate in the festivities. Live music, an open air market with a variety of treats, and culinary specialties make the festival a hit with visitors of all ages.

Not only are children included in the festivities, so is the government. The Montmartre Town Hall is where the harvested bounty of grapes are stored, pressed, and fermented before bottling. It is said that the Montmartre Town Hall is the only government office in Paris that produces wine. Half bottles of wine are considered collectible, and sell for $50 each, with all proceeds going to charity.

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