Eden Canon interviews Sue Conley, co-founder of Cowgirl Creamery, to discuss the practice of artisan cheese making, the importance of sourcing locally, and the environmental impact of cheese production.When we pick up groceries at the store, we rarely consider each product’s environmental impact in light of its production chain—from farm, to processor, to distributor, to store, right to our table. Indeed, if we did this for every item, many would cringe, as I do, at the very idea of going to the grocery store. It came as a surprise to me when I learned in a recent Meat Eater’s Guide Report released in 2011 by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) that the production of cheese is listed as one of the three most greenhouse gas emitting proteins, followed by beef and lamb. In light of this information, I interviewed Sue Conley, who co-founded California’s famous Cowgirl Creamery with her friend Peggy Smith, to talk about how small scale artisan cheese production produces far fewer environmental concerns than the conventional, industrialized process.
Cowgirl CreameryIn 1989, Sue Conley moved to Point Reyes, California where she met the Straus family, whose local creamery and dairy proudly bears the title of the first dairy to become certified organic West of the Mississippi. Sue became inspired by the Straus family’s long history of land and animal stewardship, both in the management of their own land and dairy operation as well as in Ellen Straus’ contribution to founding the Marin Agricultural Land Trust (MALT)—a non-profit dedicated to the protection of agricultural land from development, as well as promoting collaboration and open communication between farmers, environmentalists, and government agencies.
A taste of the regionWhen I asked Sue what made artisanal cheese production differ from conventional cheese production, she replied that it had to do with the source of the ingredients, the batch size and the cheese making process. Like wine, cheese gathers distinct flavors of the region it is produced in. Artisan cheese producers work with milk either from their own farm—called farmstead cheese—or from neighboring farms, and prefer not to mix milks from other dairies because, as Sue put it, this “neutralizes” the unique flavor that milk gains from pasture grazing the animal it comes from. For instance, milk that is produced in the springtime has a more complex flavor, due to all of the different plants that bloom at that time. This is Sue’s favorite time of the year to work with milk because the milk gains a flavor of wildflowers and even has a faint grassiness to it. In the winter, the cheese comes out creamier and richer, not quite as brightly flavored as in the spring. The batch size is yet another important aspect of artisanal cheese making that separates it from its conventional counterpart. Working in smaller batches means that each wheel is given the attention that it needs. For an artisan cheese maker like Cowgirl Creamery, their small wheels weighing only 8-10 oz. each require small 200-400 gallon vats to produce. Because the US lacks a tradition of small scale cheese production, what is considered small in America is a vat that runs around 1,500 gallons. In order to make their cheeses, Sue and Peggy had to specially import their vats from Holland.
Artisan cheese and the environmentThe Environmental Working Group based its emissions calculations from farm to final product, based on milk production from a typical Wisconsin dairy farm. The source of this high level of greenhouse gas emissions comes from the dairy operations that many industrial cheese makers source from, as well as the scale of production that they operate on. On average, Cowgirl Creamery makes 3,000 pounds of cheese per week. Compare this to industrial cheese producers who make upwards of one million pounds of cheese per day. To put this scale of production in perspective, it takes one gallon of milk to make one pound of cheese, meaning that industrial cheese makers process one million gallons of milk per day.
The massive amounts of milk required to meet this demand is usually sourced from dairies that rear 2,000-10,000 head of cattle. Dairy operations on this scale are labeled by the EPA as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which are one of the higher ranking sources of methane production.CAFOs raise animals in densely packed and notoriously unclean environments. Furthermore, one of the by-products of the dairy industry is the production of veal, or baby calf meat. In most cases, dairy production is inextricably bound with veal production.
By sourcing their milk from local dairy farmers who keep small herds on acres of open pasture—the 275 cattle in the Straus milking herd, for instance—is far less environmentally threatening than conventional dairy.